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The Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 changed the relational nature of investment made by US utilities. As a consequence, fuel procurement contracts switch from long term indexed contracts to short term fixed price contracts.

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(with Steve Knack and Nataliya Biletska)

Countries that justify deviations from competitive procurement for public projects transparently see greater participation by firms when bidding and lower levels of kickbacks for projects underway.

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(with Thomas Sterner, Richard T Carson, Marc Hafstead,  Peter Howard, Sverker Carlsson Jagers, Gunnar Köhlin, Ian Parry, Ryan Rafaty, E Somanatan, Jan  Christoph Steckel, Dale Whittington, Francisco Alpizar, Stefan Ambec, Claudia Aravena, Jorge Bonilla, Reza Che Daniels, Jorge Garcia, Niklas Harring, Suzi Kerr, Haileselassie Medhin, Pham Khanh Nam, German Romero, Olof Johansson Stenman, Mike Toman, Jintao Xu, and Min Wang)

In developing countries, carbon taxation faces many challenges but can also play a role in furthering  equitable development.

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Despite recent development, poverty and inequality continue to haunt South Africa, but its nature has shifted over time.

(with Ian Lange)

Coal mines in the US react to a supply shock affecting their competitors by delaying the decision to temporarily close down.

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(with Eswaran Somanathan, Sagnik Dey and Rishabh Choudhary)

Burning coal for electricity generation raises PM 2.5 levels non-linearly up to 600 km away from the power plant, implying premature deaths of half a million Indians every year through heart and pulmonary disease

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"Regulation and Contract Design: The Impact of Relationship Specific Investment" (2017,

Journal of Industrial Economics)








"Deterring Kickbacks and Encouraging Entry in Public Procurement Markets: Evidence from Firm Surveys in 88 Developing Countries" (2019, The World Bank Economic Review)





Inter-Regional Coal Mine Competition in the US: Evidence from Rail Restrictions” - (2022, Energy Economics)

Other Publications

 “Funding Inclusive Green Transition through Greenhouse Gas

  Pricing”. 2020. ifo DICE Report 




Overcoming Poverty and Inequality in South Africa: An Assessment of Drivers, Constraints and Opportunities”. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Group Report. (Contributing Author, available here)


 Working papers:

"Identifying the Effect of Coal Plants on Air Pollution"




"Does Traffic Congestion pose Health Hazards? Evidence from a Highly Congested and Polluted City"

 "Firm Exit and Input Specificity: Evidence from the COVID 19 Pandemic and the Great Recession of 2008"

 (with Chetna Ahuja)



(with Ridhima Gupta and Saif Ali)


Pollution responds to traffic congestion in a non-linear dynamic fashion. Traffic congestion may be responsible for up to 40% of all premature deaths from pulmonary and heart disease in Delhi.

Firms that have supplier specific inputs find it optimal to shut down temporarily during a major recessionary shock but appear to survive over a longer period. 



(with James Habyarimana and Shwetlena Sabarwal)

Teachers in Uganda tend to rate their own ability, effort and job satisfaction higher than their peers, suggesting they suffer from a cognitive bias that rationalizes sub-optimal teaching by those exerting low levels of effort.

Social protection for the old is used as a buffer against recessionary periods by the young in South Africa. 

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