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The Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 changed the relational nature of investment made by US utilities. As a consequence, fuel procurement contracts switch from long term indexed contracts to short term fixed price contracts.

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(with Steve Knack and Nataliya Biletska)

Countries that justify deviations from competitive procurement for public projects transparently see greater participation by firms when bidding and lower levels of kickbacks for projects underway.

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(with Thomas Sterner, Richard T Carson, Marc Hafstead,  Peter Howard, Sverker Carlsson Jagers, Gunnar Köhlin, Ian Parry, Ryan Rafaty, E Somanatan, Jan  Christoph Steckel, Dale Whittington, Francisco Alpizar, Stefan Ambec, Claudia Aravena, Jorge Bonilla, Reza Che Daniels, Jorge Garcia, Niklas Harring, Suzi Kerr, Haileselassie Medhin, Pham Khanh Nam, German Romero, Olof Johansson Stenman, Mike Toman, Jintao Xu, and Min Wang)

In developing countries, carbon taxation faces many challenges but can also play a role in furthering  equitable development.

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Despite recent development, poverty and inequality continue to haunt South Africa, but its nature has shifted over time.

(with Ian Lange)

Coal mines in the US react to a supply shock affecting their competitors by delaying the decision to temporarily close down.

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(with James Habyarimana and Shwetlena Sabarwal)

Teachers in Uganda tend to rate their own ability, effort and job satisfaction higher than their peers, suggesting they suffer from a cognitive bias that rationalizes sub-optimal teaching by those exerting low levels of effort.

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Social protection for the old is used as a buffer against recessionary periods by the young in South Africa. 

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(with Eswaran Somanathan, Sagnik Dey and Rishabh Choudhary)

Burning coal for electricity generation raises PM 2.5 levels non-linearly up to 600 km away from the power plant, implying premature deaths of half a million Indians every year through heart and pulmonary disease

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(with Ridhima Gupta and Saif Ali)

Traffic congestion in Delhi adds little to existing air pollution levels, suggesting congestion reducing policies to lower pollution are unnecessary

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"Regulation and Contract Design: The Impact of Relationship Specific Investment" (2017,

Journal of Industrial Economics)








"Deterring Kickbacks and Encouraging Entry in Public Procurement Markets: Evidence from Firm Surveys in 88 Developing Countries" (2019, The World Bank Economic Review)





Inter-Regional Coal Mine Competition in the US: Evidence from Rail Restrictions” - (2022, Energy Economics)

Other Publications

“Funding Inclusive Green Transition through Greenhouse Gas

Pricing”. 2020. ifo DICE Report 





“Overcoming Poverty and Inequality in South Africa: An Assessment of Drivers, Constraints and Opportunities”. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Group Report. (Contributing Author, available here)




Working papers:


Better Than Most: Teacher Self-Beliefs in Uganda















Social Transfers and the Labor Supply Response: Revisiting the South African Old Age Pension

"Identifying the Effect of Coal Plants on Air Pollution"

"Does Traffic Congestion pose Health Hazards? Evidence from a Highly Congested and Polluted City"

In Progress:

"Firm shutdown and Relation-specific Investments: Evidence using cross-country firm-level data" (with Chetna Ahuja)



Firms that make non-generic investments find it optimal to shut down temporarily when a major recessionary shock hurts supply chains and product demand.  

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